You need to start at the beginning to understand the law in the bible. Now, in the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth and law to govern them. Now, this law is righteous. Because this law defines sin. The law of the kingdom of heaven govern immortal beings. Therefore, some of them lead to eternal condemnation, and some do not. The law of the earth governs mortal beings. Therefore, some of them lead to death, and some do not. (1 John 5:16-17) Now in principle and precept, the law for the earth and the heavens are the same. This means that, like the law of the heavens, the law of the earth from the beginning are eternal. On the other hand, the Law of Moses that was added because of sins only applied to the nation of Israel for a limited time. (Galatians 3:19; Hebrews 9:9) Now, in the beginning, Adam and Eve were not under any temporary law. They were, however, subject to the righteous law of the Lord in the bible.
The bible teaches that Adam and Eve were subject to the law in the bible. We know this because their sins brought death to the human race. This means that they committed sins that carry the death penalty. Now, this also means that if they had only committed sins that do not lead to death, death would not have come upon the human race. Furthermore, if they had only committed sins that do not lead to death, God’s plan of salvation would not be needed. However, since they did commit sins that lead to death, the Lord’s plan of salvation would be needed. Now it is worth noting at this point that the Lord’s plan of salvation needed the precept of the law of redemption to be in effect. The law of redemption says that if an alien or temporary resident with you becomes rich, and your brother beside him has grown poor, and sells himself to the stranger or foreigner living among you, or to a member of the stranger’s family after he is sold he may be redeemed. One of his brothers may redeem him, or his uncle or his uncle’s son may redeem him, or any who is a close relative to him of his family may redeem him; or if he has grown rich, he may redeem himself. (Leviticus 25:47-49)
After Sin from Adam to Moses
Even before the flood, the bible teaches us about the law in the bible. God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth and that every imagination of the thoughts of man’s heart was continually only evil. God was sorry that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him in his heart. God said, “I will destroy man whom I have created from the surface of the ground—man, along with animals, creeping things, and birds of the sky—for I am sorry that I have made them.” However, Noah found favor in God’s eyes. This is the history of the generations of Noah: Noah was a righteous man, blameless among the people of his time. Noah walked with God. (Gen. 6:5-9) God saw the earth and saw that it was corrupt, for all flesh had corrupted their way on the earth. (Gen. 6:12) Now the God of Israel, says, ‘Your fathers lived of old time beyond the River, even Terah, the father of Abraham, and the father of Nahor. They served other gods. (Joshua 24:2)
Even after the flood, the bible teaches us about the law in the bible. Now the first thing that Noah set his heart to do was to make an altar to the Lord and offers a sacrifice of thanksgiving. Because Noah built an altar to God, and took of every clean animal, and of every clean bird, and offered burnt offerings on the altar. (Gen.8:20). Next, the bible says about Abraham, “Abraham obeyed my voice, and kept my requirements, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws.” (Gen. 26:5). In the account of Melchizedek, the first paying of tithes is made known. This was done by Abraham. Next, we have God saying to Moses, “How long do you refuse to keep my commandments and my laws? (Exodus 16:28) Lastly, there is Moses saying to his father-in-law, “the people come to me to inquire of God. When they have a matter, they come to me, and I judge between a man and his neighbor, and I make them know the statutes of God, and his laws.” (Exodus 18:15-16)
Under the Old Covenant
It is under the Old Covenant that we find all of the law in the bible. There are three sets of laws listed from Exodus to Deuteronomy. The first set is the Ten Commandments. The bible says Moses was there with God forty days and forty nights; he neither ate bread nor drank water. Also, God wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant, the Ten Commandments. (Exodus 34:28) It goes on to say that God declared to the Nation of Israel his covenant, which he commanded them to perform, even the Ten Commandments. Moreover, He wrote them on two stone tablets. (Deuteronomy 4:13) Furthermore, the bible says that the Lord wrote on the tablets, according to the first writing, the Ten Commandments, which God spoke to the Nation of Israel on the mountain out of the middle of the fire in the day of the assembly; and God gave them to Moses. (Deuteronomy 10:4)
The book of the covenant of God is the second set of law in the bible. Now Moses came and told the people all God’s words, and all the ordinances; and all the people answered with one voice, and said, “All the words which God has spoken will we do.” Moses wrote all God’s words, then rose up early in the morning and built an altar at the base of the mountain, with twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel. He sent young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt offerings and sacrificed peace offerings of cattle to God. Moses took half of the blood and put it in basins and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar. He took the book of the covenant and read it in the hearing of the people, and they said, “We will do all that God has said, and be obedient.” Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, “Look, this is the blood of the covenant, which God has made with you concerning all these words.” (Exodus 24:3-8)
Some of the Law of Moses, the third set, is part of the law in the bible. Here are some of them. I am God who brought you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God. You shall, therefore, be holy, for I am holy. (Leviticus 11:45; 19:2) You shall do no injustice in judgment. You shall not be partial to the poor, nor show favoritism to the great, but you shall judge your neighbor in righteousness. (Leviticus 19:15) You shall not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of your people, but you shall love your neighbor as yourself. I am God. (Leviticus 19:18) The stranger who lives as a foreigner with you shall be to you as the native-born among you, and you shall love him as yourself; for you lived as foreigners in the land of Egypt. I am the Lord your God. (Leviticus 19:34) Sanctify yourselves, therefore, and be holy; for I am the Lord your God. (Leviticus 20:7) On the other hand, unlike these laws, most of the laws in the book of the Law of Moses are not akin to the other two sets of laws.
Under the New Covenant
Under the New Covenant, most people are misled about the law in the bible. Most of the laws in the book of the Law of Moses were temporary. Because God said, He gave the Nation of Israel temporary laws. For it is written, “Moreover also I gave them statutes that were not good and ordinances in which they should not live.” (Ezekiel 20:25) These laws ended with the Old Covenant. For it is written, “Then why is there the law? It was added because of transgressions until the offspring should come to whom the promise has been made. It was ordained through angels by the hand of a mediator.” (Galatians 3:19) These laws being only (with meats and drinks and various washings) fleshly ordinances, imposed until a time of reformation. (Hebrews 9:10) In other words, the death of Christ wiped out the handwriting in ordinances, which was against us. He has taken it out of the way, nailing it to the cross. (Colossians 2:14) However, ending these temporary laws did not do away with any of the laws from the beginning that defines sin.
The bible makes it clear that under the New Covenant, the law in the bible continues. Now until the law [of Moses], sin was in the world; but sin is not charged when there is no law. (Romans 5:13) This means that the law [of Moses] and sin (the laws of God from the beginning that define sin) are distinct from one another. Remember, the law [of Moses] was added because of sins committed under the first covenant. (Galatians 3:19; Hebrews 9:15) So for the most part, the Law of Moses was a penal code/law. Now even the apostle Paul says, “Shall we sin, because we are not under the law, but under grace? May it never be!” (Romans 6:15) Furthermore, Paul says, “Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? May it never be! We who died to sin, how could we live in it any longer?” (Romans 6:1-2) Moreover, it should be noted that every epistle in the Bible admonishes people to follow the way of righteousness. (2 Peter 2:21)
Most people today want to know if they are subject to the law in the bible. They want to know if they are subject to the laws of God from the beginning that defines what sin is. Now it should be self-evident that the laws of God that define sin also define righteousness. Well, the way of God is righteousness. (Genesis 18:19) And God’s ways are eternal. (Habakkuk 3:6) And it is written, “They have turned away quickly out of the way which I commanded them.” (Exodus 32:8; Deuteronomy 9:12; Deuteronomy 9:16) Now Christ became to all of those who obey him the author of eternal salvation. (Hebrews 5:9) Do you really think that believing and being baptized in the name of the Farther, the Son, and the Holy Ghost is all you have to obey for eternal salvation? Well, Godly people know that sin will always exist, and therefore, God’s laws against sin must always exist. Now, this is the end of the matter. All has been heard. Fear God and keep his commandments; for this is the whole duty of man. (Ecclesiastes 12:13)